Saturday, November 17, 2018

St. Elizabeth of Hungary

Also known as Elizabeth of Thuringia, she was born in Hungary in 1207. She was a daughter of King Andrew II of Hungary and his wife Gertrude, a member of the family of the Counts of Andechs-Meran; Elizabeth’s brother succeeded his father on the throne as Bela IV; St. Hedwig, the wife of Duke Heinrich I, the Bearded, of Silesia was her mother’s sister, while another saint, Queen St. Elizabeth of Portugal, the wife of the tyrannical King Diniz, was her great-niece.

In 1211 a formal embassy was sent by Landgrave Hermann I of Thuringia to Hungary to arrange a marriage between his eldest son Hermann and Elizabeth, who was then four years old. This marriage was the result of political considerations and intended as a ratification of an alliance against the German Emperor Otto IV, a member of the house of Guelph, who had quarreled with the Church. Not long after the little girl was taken to the Thuringian court to be brought up with her future husband and, in the course of time, to be betrothed to him.

The court of Thuringia was at this period famous for its magnificence. Its centre was the stately castle of the Wartburg, splendidly placed on a hill in the Thuringian Forest near Eisenach, where the Landgrave Hermann lived. Notwithstanding the turbulence and purely secular life of the court and the pomp of her surroundings, little Elizabeth grew up a very religious child with an evident inclination to prayer and pious observances and small acts of self-mortification. These religious impulses were undoubtedly strengthened by the sorrowful experiences of her life.

In the year 1213, Elizabeth’s mother was murdered by Hungarian nobles, probably out of hatred of the Germans. On December 31, 1216, the oldest son and heir of the landgrave, Hermann, who Elizabeth was to marry, died; after this she was betrothed to Ludwig, the second son. It was probably in these years that Elizabeth had to suffer the hostility of the more frivolous members of the Thuringian court, to whom the contemplative and pious child was a constant rebuke. Ludwig, however, must have soon come to her protection against any ill-treatment and his mother, the Landgravine Sophia, a member of the reigning family of Bavaria and a deeply religious and very charitable woman, became a kindly mother to the little Elizabeth.

The political plans of the old Landgrave Hermann involved him in great difficulties and reverses; he was excommunicated, lost his mind towards the end of his life, and died on April 25, 1217, still unreconciled with the Church. He was succeeded by his son Ludwig IV, who, in 1221, was also made regent of Meissen and the East Mark. The same year, Ludwig and Elizabeth were married, the groom being twenty-one years old and the bride fourteen. The marriage was in every respect a happy and exemplary one, and the couple were devotedly attached to each other. Ludwig proved himself worthy of his wife. He gave his protection to her acts of charity, penance, and her vigils, and often held Elizabeth’s hands as she knelt praying at night beside his bed. He was also a capable ruler and brave soldier.

They had three children: Hermann II (1222-41), who died young; Sophia (1224-84), who married Henry II, Duke of Brabant, and was the ancestress of the Landgraves of Hesse; and Gertrude (1227-97), Elizabeth’s third child, who was born several weeks after the death of her father and later in life became abbess of the convent of Altenberg.

The followers of St. Francis of Assisi had made their first permanent settlement in Germany the year of Elizabeth’s marriage to Ludwig. For a time, the German Franciscan Caesarius of Speier was her spiritual director and through him she became acquainted with the ideals of St. Francis. These strongly appealed to her and she began to put them into practice: she observed chastity, according to her state of life, and practiced humility, patience, prayer, and charity. Her position, however, prevented her from living one she ardently desired: voluntary and complete poverty. In 1225, with Elizabeth’s assistance, the Franciscans founded a monastery in Eisenach.

Shortly after their marriage, Elizabeth and Ludwig made a journey to Hungary; Ludwig was often after this employed by the Emperor Frederick II, to whom he was much attached, in the affairs of the empire. During the spring of 1226, when floods, famine, and the plague wrought havoc in Thuringia, Ludwig was in Italy attending the Diet at Cremona on behalf of the emperor. Under these disastrous circumstances Elizabeth assumed control of affairs, distributed alms, giving even state robes and ornaments to the poor. In order to care personally for the unfortunate she built below the castle of Wartburg a hospital with twenty-eight beds and visited the inmates daily to attend to their needs; at the same time she aided nine hundred poor daily. It is this period of her life that has preserved Elizabeth’s renown as the gentle and charitable chételaine of the Wartburg. Upon his return, Ludwig confirmed all that she had done in his absence.

The following year he set out with Emperor Frederick II on a crusade to Palestine but died of the plague on September 11 at Otranto. The news did not reach Elizabeth until October, just after she had given birth to her third child. Upon hearing the news the queen, who was only twenty years old, cried out: “The world with all its joys is now dead to me.” In that winter of 1227, Elizabeth directed the Franciscans to sing a Te Deum and left the castle of Wartburg, accompanied by two female attendants. Her brother-in-law, Heinrich Raspe, now acted as regent for her son Hermann, then only five years old.

At Pope Gregory IX’s recommendation, Master Conrad of Marburg, a well known preacher of the crusade and inquisitor, had become Elizabeth’s spiritual guide. He directed her by the road of self-mortification to sanctity, and after her death was very active in her canonization. Although he forbade her to follow St. Francis in complete poverty as a beggar, by the command to keep her dower she was enabled to perform works of charity and tenderness.

Elizabeth’s aunt, Matilda, Abbess of the Benedictine convent of Kitzingen near Würzburg, took charge of the widowed landgravine and sent her to her uncle Eckbert, Bishop of Bamberg. The bishop, however, was intent on arranging another marriage for her, although during the lifetime of her husband Elizabeth had made a vow of chastity in the event of his death; the same vow had also been taken by her attendants.

While Elizabeth was maintaining her position against her uncle the remains of her husband were brought to Bamberg by his faithful followers who had carried them from Italy. Weeping bitterly, she buried his body in the family vault of the landgraves of Thuringia in the monastery of Reinhardsbrunn. With the aid of Conrad she now received the value of her dower in money, namely two thousand marks; of this sum she divided five hundred marks in one day among the poor. On Good Friday, 1228, in the Franciscan house at Eisenach Elizabeth formally renounced the world; then going to Master Conrad at Marburg, she and her maids received from him the dress of the Third Order of St. Francis, thus being among the first tertiaries of Germany. In the summer of 1228 she built the Franciscan hospital at Marburg and on its completion devoted herself entirely to the care of the sick, especially to those afflicted with the most loathsome diseases. Conrad of Marburg still imposed many self-mortifications and spiritual renunciations, while at the same time he even took from Elizabeth her devoted domestics. Constant in her devotion to God, Elizabeth’s strength was consumed by her charitable labors, and she passed away in 1231 at the age of twenty-four.

Very soon after the death of Elizabeth miracles began to be worked at her grave in the church of the hospital. By papal command examinations were held of those who had been healed and at Pentecost of the year 1235, the solemn ceremony of canonization of the “greatest woman of the German Middle Ages” was celebrated by Pope Gregory IX at Perugia.

1 comment:

  1. Elisabetta conobbe ed amò Cristo nei poveri

    Elisabetta incominciò presto a distinguersi in virtù e santità di vita. Ella aveva sempre consolato i poveri, ma da quando fece costruire un ospedale presso un suo castello, e vi raccolse malati di ogni genere, da allora si dedicò interamente alla cura dei bisognosi.
    Distribuiva con larghezza i doni della sua beneficenza non solo a coloro che ne facevano domanda presso il suo ospedale, ma in tutti i territori dipendenti da suo marito. Arrivò al punto da erogare in beneficenza i proventi dei quattro principati di suo marito e da vendere oggetti di valore e vesti preziose per distribuirne il prezzo ai poveri.
    Aveva preso l'abitudine di visitare tutti i suoi malati personalmente, due volte al giorno, al mattino e alla sera. Si prese cura diretta dei più ripugnanti. Nutrì alcuni, ad altri procurò un letto, altri portò sulle proprie spalle, prodigandosi sempre in ogni attività di bene, senza mettersi tuttavia per questo in contrasto con suo marito.
    Dopo la morte di lui, tendendo alla più alta perfezione, mi domandò con molte lacrime che le permettessi di chiedere l'elemosina di porta in porta.
    Un Venerdì santo, quando gli altari sono spogli, poste le mani sull'altare in una cappella del suo castello, dove aveva accolto i Frati Minori, alla presenza di alcuni intimi, rinunziò alla propria volontà, a tutte le vanità del mondo e a tutto quello che nel vangelo il Salvatore ha consigliato di lasciare. Fatto questo, temendo di poter essere riassorbita dal rumore del mondo e dalla gloria umana, se rimaneva nei luoghi in cui era vissuta insieme al marito e in cui era tanto ben voluta e stimata, volle seguirmi a Marburgo, sebbene io non volessi. Quivi costruì un ospedale ove raccolse i malati e gli invalidi e servì alla propria mensa i più miserabili ed i più derelitti.
    Affermo davanti a Dio che raramente ho visto una donna così contemplativa come Elisabetta, che pure era dedita a molte attività. Alcuni religiosi e religiose constatarono assai spesso che, quando ella usciva dalla sua preghiera privata, emanava dal volto un mirabile splendore e che dai suoi occhi uscivano come dei raggi di sole.
    Prima della morte ne ascoltai la confessione e le domandai cosa si dovesse fare dei suoi averi e delle suppellettili. Mi rispose che quanto sembrava sua proprietà era tutto dei poveri e mi pregò di distribuire loro ogni cosa, eccetto una tunica di nessun valore di cui era rivestita, e nella quale volle essere seppellita. Fatto questo, ricevette il Corpo del Signore. Poi, fino a sera, spesso ritornava su tutte le cose belle che aveva sentito nella predicazione. Infine raccomandò a Dio, con grandissima devozione, tutti coloro che le stavano dintorno, e spirò come addormentandosi dolcemente. Corrado di Marburgo, direttore spirituale di santa Elisabetta